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    I Have A Dream

    Read the speech below and answer the questions at the end.

    Martin Luther King, Jr.

    "I Have a Dream"

    I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

    Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

    But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

    In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."

    But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

    We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.

    It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

    But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.

    The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.

    We cannot walk alone.

    And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.

    We cannot turn back.

    There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating: "For Whites Only." We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until "justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream."¹

    martinlutherkingIhaveadream2.jpg (11261 bytes)

    I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.

    Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.

    And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

    I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."

    I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

    I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

    I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

    I have a dream today!

    I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of "interposition" and "nullification" -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

    I have a dream today!

    I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; "and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together."2

    This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with.

    With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

    And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning:

    My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.

    Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride,

    From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

    And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.

    And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.

    Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

    Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

    Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

    Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

    But not only that:

    Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

    Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

    Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

    From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

    And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:

    Free at last! Free at last!

    Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!3


    Questions:

    Vocab Work

    1. Read Dr. King's speech. Find seven words about which you are unsure and look up their meanings. Write the definitions.

    Rhetorical Structure: Figures of Speech
    Certain rhetorical devices called figures of speech (similes, metaphors, allusions, alliteration, etc.) are used in both poetry and prose to make ideas more memorable and forceful. For centuries speakers and writers have known that such well said devices affect listeners and readers in powerful ways.
    2. Find and write the definitions of each of the following: alliteration, allusion, metaphor, and simile.
    3. "Five score years ago," the opening phrase of King's speech, is an allusion to what or whom? Why was this an appropriate and strong way for King to begin his speech?
    4. King's speech contains other allusions in addition to the one with which he opens his speech. Find an allusion to the Declaration of Independence and the Bible.
    5. Find an example of alliteration in King's speech.
    6. Find an example of a metaphor.
    7. Find an example of a simile.
    8. In the second paragraph, King says that "the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination."
    What type of figure of speech is this?
    9. These words bring up strong images of slavery. Why would this be an effective method of moving his audience?
    10. What inference was King making about the progress of African Americans to enter the mainstream of American life in the one hundred years which followed the end of slavery?
    10. Nearly every line of King's speech is filled with powerful images, or "mental pictures," many created by using figures of speech. Images help audiences to feel what speakers/writers want them to feel, help them remember what they have read or heard, and help them understand difficult material. Write a well-developed paragraph telling which of King's images you find most powerful and appealing and explain why this image had meaning for you.


    Comments

    Timothy Williamson
    May 20, 2009

    2. Alliteration: The use of the same letter or sound at the beginning, or near the beginning, of a series of words (generally not with a vowel or the letter “s”, in this case it is called assonance or sibilance). E.g Drop dead like dogs
    Allusion: An expression that, while not stating something implicitly, conjures it up in the mind often through the use of symbolism, references and suggestions. E.g Let me not to the marriage of true minds admit impediments.
    Metaphor: A figure of speech when one applies the name, thus characteristics, of one object or action to another even if it is not literally the same. E.g We are black sheep who have gone astray
    Simile: Comparing one object or action to another, generally through the use of “like” or “as”. E.g The music was like having a hole bored through my head

    3. “Five score years ago” is a reference to former President Lincoln’s 3 minute long “Gettysburg Address”. This was particularly fitting because Lincoln was known as “The Great Emancipator” because of the work he did freeing Negro slaves in the south, the states of which he makes particular mention of later and the precedent for liberty that it set. Lincoln was also a proponent of the idea that “all men were created equal”, this was the central thesis behind Luther’s claims for racial equality and making mention of it added substance to Luther’s speech.
    The other reason that this was such a fitting allusion was that this was one of the most turbulent times in American history, when the nation was literally split in two over the issue of black slavery. When America had emerged it was all the stronger for it and it is still seen as a defining point in the forging of the nation; thus, it was effective to mention this and instill powerful emotions in people.

    4. The Biblical allusion is “no, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream", from Amos 5:24 and “black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics,” is reminiscent of Galatians 3:28.
    The allusion to the declaration of independence is “unalienable rights” and “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness”, these are both direct quotes as well as central tenets of the Declaration’s ideals.

    5. The alliteration is “come to the nation’s capital to cash a check”

    6. “Battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality” is a metaphor.

    7. The biblical reference from Amos “justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream” uses simile.

    8. “the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination” uses metaphor (“the manacles of…the chains of”).

    9. These images created are strongly reminiscent of slavery. This would move his audience because while slavery had technically been abolished, the Negros (sic) were still seen as second class citizens. By referring to the “manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination” he implies that the forces holding them down in their present day were akin to the forces that were holding slaves “five score years ago” and as such, equally wrong. This would make the audience feel frustrated by the “gradualistic” nature of progress; they would feel their promises had been betrayed and want to act on this.

    10. King makes infers two things when he talks about African Americans moving into main stream society; the change will be dramatic and the change will bring about peace. King obviously saw the shift towards mainstream America as an ultimate destination, and because of this he uses powerful old testament quotations that talk about the days when the times of trial are over, “I have a dream that every valley shall be exalted” and “justice rolls down like the waters”. In doing this, he indirectly compares the suffering audience he is addressing to the Jews, God’s chosen people, who would eventually be lead from the suffering they were in. As a Baptist Minister, addressing a probably similar faith audience, the references would not go unrecognized and infer a dramatic change from their present suffering (this makes his point of view look more lucrative because it promises definite change).
    The second thing that it promises is the harmony that it will bring about. He refers to “my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin” and by doing so creates a dreamland type image of children holding hands and playing ring around the rosy. He refers to the end of segregation by calling for an end to “For Whites Only” signs and where there is no segregation there must be amalgamation, so the new world will be peaceful.

    11. I find that the most effective image that King uses is the idea of “cashing a check”. I believe that this image is appealing because of the ideas of rights that it implies and the promise of a reward to the people listening.
    By saying that “we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check” King was saying that they had the right to receive their demands but they were already owed them. A check is just a piece of paper that says one person owes money to another, so by saying that they were cashing a check they were saying that the system had already given them rights and dignity, they were just not usable yet, when they stood there on that day they were asking the world to formally recognize the debt being paid to them.
    On top of this, King goes as far as to say that it is the Constitution itself and the Declaration of Independence that sets down the basis for their claims. He says that these documents give “unalienable Rights” to them all; because of this they have every right to be owed the same debt the other citizens did.
    The idea of a check is also one that obviously implies money. The people listening to him, some were “fresh from narrow jail cells” and others “battered by the storm of persecution”; by saying that he was cashing a check he implied that somewhere down the track there would be material gain. While equality is all well and good it is hard to achieve if people are starving, which many of them were, King is stating here that equality will bring about the same education and other benefits that the white man got.

    Jock Armstrong
    May 21, 2009

    Emancipation: set free, esp. from legal, social, or political restrictions
    Languished: lose or lack vitality; grow weak or feeble

    2. Find and write the definitions of each of the following:
    Alliteration: the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
    Allusion: an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly
    Metaphor: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable
    Simile: a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind

    3. "Five score years ago," the opening phrase of King's speech, is an allusion to what or whom? Why was this an appropriate and strong way for King to begin his speech?
    This was an allusion to Former President Lincolns Ghettiesburg address. This is very fitting as Lincolns speech was related to the issue that King was dealing with. Freeing slaves in the united states.

    4. King's speech contains other allusions in addition to the one with which he opens his speech. Find an allusion to the Declaration of Independence and the Bible.

    Bible: “black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics,” is alluding to Galatians 3:28.

    Declaration of Independence: “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness” is a quote from the Declaration.

    5. Find an example of alliteration in King's speech.
    “molehill of Mississippi”
    6. Find an example of a metaphor.
    “Battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality”
    7. Find an example of a simile.
    “righteousness like a mighty stream”

    8. In the second paragraph, King says that "the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination."
    What type of figure of speech is this?
    This is a Metaphor

    9. These words bring up strong images of slavery. Why would this be an effective method of moving his audience?
    This puts an image into the listeners head that is visual and will stick.

    10. What inference was King making about the progress of African Americans to enter the mainstream of American life in the one hundred years which followed the end of slavery?

    He was inferring that when African Americans enter mainstream America, it will bring peace and end the social gap between them.

    11. Nearly every line of King's speech is filled with powerful images, or "mental pictures," many created by using figures of speech. Images help audiences to feel what speakers/writers want them to feel, help them remember what they have read or heard, and help them understand difficult material. Write a well-developed paragraph telling which of King's images you find most powerful and appealing and explain why this image had meaning for you.
    “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges” is what I think is the most powerful statement that King made in his speech. It is saying that if we keep moving forward with this separation of classes and races, it will eventually bring the country down.

    Jonathan Paul
    May 21, 2009

    I Have A Dream

    Questions:

    1. Some words that I did not know in the speech were:

    * Emancipation: Set free, esp. from legal, social, or political restrictions:
    * Proclamation: A public or official announcement, esp. one dealing with a matter of great importance.
    * Insofar: To the extent that.
    * Interposition: The action of interposing someone or something.
    * Nullification: Make legally null and void; invalidate.
    * Ghettos: A part of a city, esp. A slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups.
    * Inextricably: Impossible to disentangle or separate.

    Definitions accessed from: New Oxford American Dictionary – electronic.

    2.

    * Alliteration: The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
    * Allusion: An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.
    * Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
    * Simile: A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid.

    Definitions accessed from: New Oxford American Dictionary – electronic.

    3. The phrase five score years is a reference to “Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.” (1)

    4. - An illusion to the Declaration of Independence can be see in the sentence, “when the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir.” (2)

    -An allusion to the bible in his speech is seen in the last line of his speech, “Thank God Almighty, we are free at last.” (2)

    5. An example of alliteration in King’s speech is – “It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.” (2)

    6. An example of a metaphor in King’s speech is – “the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination" (2)

    7. Two examples of a similes in King’s speech are - "justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream."¹(2)

    8. The sentence (in King’s speech) - "the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination" (2) – is an example of a metaphor.

    9. The use of bringing up images of slavery in his speech would have been an effective method to move the audience because everyone knows they would not like to be a slave. Having these images painted in your head would have made you feel sorry for the negro community. This would have also evoked a feeling of sympathy which would intern make any white person consider if they are at all raciest.

    10a. The inference that king was making about African Americans entering the main stream after the slavery is that the process of this happening is very slow. He is also inferring that it has not yet happened.

    10b. The most powerful image that was painted in King’s speech, in my opinion was the final line, “Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!” (2) In my opinion this is such a powerful line that has deep meaning because if this ever were to come completely true it would change America and the world forever. When hearing this line I have this image of there being an America that it free of hate rid, free or racism and how pleased the negro community would be with that out come. This image also re enforces the link between God and how he may have helped guide the negro community through the tough times to the hopeful bright light at the end of the tunnel.

    (1). http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Five_score_years_ago_the_opening_phrase_of_King's_speech_is_in_reference_to_what_or_whom

    (2). http://teams.as.edu.au/groups/10eng/blog/

    Thomas Walsh
    May 22, 2009

    1.interposition-the act of interposing someone or something.
    promissory-conveying or implying a promise.

    2.alliteration-the occurence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of the adjacent or closely connected words.
    allusion-an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly;an indirect or passing reference.
    metaphor-a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
    similie-a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid.

    3.The line five years ago, refers toLincoln speech, which refered to the Emancipation Proclomation, which is when the slaves were set free. This is fitting because president Lincoln was well known for his work with the freeing of the slaves.

    4.The allusion to the bible from the speech is from Amos 5:24 "no, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream".

    5.the alliteration is

    6.

    7.

    8. This is a metaphor, because it says tat they are something, which isn't literally applicable.

    9. This is an effective method of moving his audience, because it brings up all the hardships that there people had faced. Slavery was meant to be abolished, yet King tries to say that they all still are like slaves. This is because of the class divide, and the idea that negro's were second class citizens.

    10. He is infering that the shift will be peaceful, and it will also be quite shocking. He also is implying that all the people will live in harmony. He also says that the time to act is now

    11. I find the opening two paragraphs the best to make the audience be moved. He uses imagery of the negros still being kept by chains, with the contrast of them being set free 100 years ago, and how joyous it was. I also find the famous I have a dream part is quite moving, because it represents the dream of all the negro's. He talks about how his children will be playing with other white kids. Which conjures up the image of kids playing happily in fields of green, and is quite powerful, becaus ekids are so innocent.

    Ben Brunckhorst
    May 22, 2009

    1. Vocab
    Interposition: the action of interposing (intervening), putting something between, someone or something.
    Gradualism: a policy of gradual reform rather than sudden change or revolution.
    Promissory: conveying or implying a promise; indicative of something to come or full of promise.
    Emancipation: being set free, especially from legal, social, or political restrictions.
    Unalienable: unable to be taken away from or given away by the possessor.
    Militancy: the combative and aggressive support of a political or social cause, typically favouring extreme, violent, or confrontational methods.
    Inextricably: the state of being impossible to disentangle or separate.

    2. Speech Devices
    Alliteration: the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of adjacent words.
    Allusion: an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it directly; an indirect or passing comment.
    Metaphor: when a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable but adds meaning.
    Simile: a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing to another different thing to describe the particular thing more vivid and evocative.

    3. "Five score years ago," the opening phrase of the speech by King, is an allusion to the Emancipation Proclamation made by president Lincoln in 1863. It was a proclamation freeing all Negro slaves but it was beyond Lincoln’s power to immediately implement this. Negro’s may have been let free here but were still treated differently. For the next 100 years a crusade against slavery would be seen. It is appropriate that the speech is started in this way because this is the issue King addresses in his speech. By starting strongly with this he creates the image of freedom for Negro’s in the minds of the audience.

    4. Find an allusion to the Declaration of Independence and the Bible.
    There are other allusions in the speech including one to the Declaration of Independence signed by representatives from the Thirteen Colonies. It declares the independence of the US from being under the British crown. This allusion in the speech is seen when King talks about the freedom that men were to have in America. He mentions the “Unalienable rights of Life Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”. There are a few direct allusions to the Bible including “and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.” From Isaiah 40:5 and “no, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream", from Amos 5:24. These are almost direct quotes from parts of the Bible. King also makes a number of references to God (“God Almighty”) and calls all people “God’s Children”.

    5. An example of alliteration in King’s speech is “Mighty Mountains”.

    6. An example of a metaphor in King’s speech is “An invigorating autumn of freedom and equality”.

    7. An example of a simile in King’s speech is “justice rolls down like waters” which is also from the Bible.

    8. In the second paragraph, King says "the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination." This is a metaphor of what the life of the Negro is.

    9. The strong images of slavery that come from these words would be an affective method of moving his audience. Firstly the majority of King’s audience were Negro’s to whom King was describing the life of. They would have been moved to have their own life described to them as a slave when slavery had officially ceased 100 years ago. King was declaring that even thought the Emancipation Proclamation was signed 100 years ago Negro’s are still treated as slaves by being discriminated and segregated. This would have especially moved the audience as King explained how the way that Black Americans were discriminated against and set apart from the White society made them slaves.

    10.King infers several things about the progress of African Americans to enter mainstream American life one hundred years after the end of slavery. He specifically mentions “the urgency of the moment” and that access to mainstream American life will bring justice and freedom. He calls for action NOW and asks that Negro’s be granted citizenship rights immediately. King says “Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children”. He also infers that “Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning”, he is telling us that 100 years on from the end of slavery is another beginning of rights for African Americans. King emphasises this: “But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free”.

    11. The image that is both most powerful and appealing to me is when King says, “This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality”. In this quote he uses figures of speech and comparison to the seasons that anyone can relate to. The adjectives “sweltering” and “invigorating” provide a useful idea of how the Negro’s have been in “an uncomfortably hot” (sweltering) situation without rights. But when “the autumn of freedom and equality” comes they will be strengthened (invigorated). This image had a really strong message to me because I could easily understand the metaphorical language and the meaning was clear. It gave me a better idea of the protest King was presenting and summed it up in one sentence.

    Levi McKenzie-Kirkbright
    May 22, 2009

    1.
    Interposition- the action of placing or inserting between one thing and another.
    Nullification- from nullify; to make legally void/null/invalid.
    Curvaceous- of having an attractively curved shape.
    Inextricably- impossible to separate/untangle/separate/escape from (each other.)
    Tranquillity- free from disturbance; calm.
    Legitimate- conforming to the law and/or the rules.
    2.
    Alliteration- the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
    Allusion- an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.
    Metaphor- a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
    Simile- a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid.

    3. This is an allusion to the Gydesburg Address by Abraham Lincoln. This is appropriate because Lincoln was the winner of the American Civil War and a part of the party that wanted to abolish slavery and then create the Constitutions, Bill of Rights and the Emancipation Proclamation.

    4.
    The Bible:
    "and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together."
    The Declaration of Independence:
    "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

    5. “colour of their skin but by the content of their character.”

    6. “It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of colour are concerned. Instead of honouring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked 6. "insufficient funds."”

    7. “"justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream."”

    8. It is a figure of speech that evokes images of slavery and captivity.

    9. This is an effective way of moving the audience because most of them were Negro. It is because of their slave background.

    10. I believe that the most powerful section of MLK's speech is the "I have a dream," repetition. In particular, "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character." I think this is very powerful because it refers directly to one of the basic human instincts. This is the instinct that tells us to protect our young by making their lives better. Also, it gives vague imagery of liberation through the simplest thing in life, children playing with other children. It is complex on one level yet simple one another. This is why I think it is the most powerful section.

    Aidan Watt
    May 22, 2009

    1. Read Dr. King's speech. Find seven words about which you are unsure and look up their meanings. Write the definitions.
    Gradiualism: Gradualism is the belief that changes occur, or ought to occur, slowly in the form of gradual steps (see also incrementalism). Insofar: To such a degree or extent. Emancipation: Emancipation is a term used to describe various efforts to obtain political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally in discussion of such matters. Couldn’t find any other words I didn’t know.

    2. Find and write the definitions of each of the following: alliteration, allusion, metaphor, and simile.
    Alliteration: The repetition of the same or similar sounds at the beginning of words. Allusion: A figure of speech making casual reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event. Metaphor: a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity. Simile: A figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another.

    3. "Five score years ago," the opening phrase of King's speech, is an allusion to what or whom? Why was this an appropriate and strong way for King to begin his speech?
    King refers to Abraham Lincoln. This is a good way to open his speech because it catches the attention of the people and makes them listen to what he had to say. It was fitting because Lincoln did a lot of work freeing Negro slaves.

    4. King's speech contains other allusions in addition to the one with which he opens his speech. Find an allusion to the Declaration of Independence and the Bible.
    The phrase “…all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics…” is very similar to the bible verse of Galatians 3:28 “There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” King also quotes directly from the Declaration of Independence, “…would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

    5. Find an example of alliteration in King's speech.
    An example of alliteration in King’s speech is, “…to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together…”

    6. Find an example of a metaphor.
    “…by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination…” is a good example of a metaphor.

    7. Find an example of a simile.
    "…justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream." Is a simile.

    8. In the second paragraph, King says that "the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination."
    What type of figure of speech is this?
    It is a metaphor.

    9. These words bring up strong images of slavery. Why would this be an effective method of moving his audience?
    Because his audience were essentially good-hearted people the phrases referring to the “manacles of segregation” and the “chains of discrimination” would have a moving effect on them.

    10. What inference was King making about the progress of African Americans to enter the mainstream of American life in the one hundred years which followed the end of slavery?
    King says that the African Americans will know peace and there will be a huge difference in their lives, they will no longer be salves and they will have equal rights.

    11. Nearly every line of King's speech is filled with powerful images, or "mental pictures," many created by using figures of speech. Images help audiences to feel what speakers/writers want them to feel, help them remember what they have read or heard, and help them understand difficult material. Write a well-developed paragraph telling which of King's images you find most powerful and appealing and explain why this image had meaning for you.
    I think that the line “I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of "interposition" and "nullification" -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.” Is the most moving because it shows us directly the extent of racism in Alabama and this reflects to all of America.

    Timothy Pearson
    May 22, 2009

    “I Have a Dream” Response
    By Tim Pearson =)

    1. Definitions of words I didn’t no the meaning of:
    - Emancipation: to set free, especially of legal, social or political restrictions.
    - Insofar: to the extent that or of.
    - Segregation: the action or state of setting someone of something apart from other people or things, or being set apart.
    - Militancy: combative and aggressive in support of a political or social cause, and typically favouring extreme, violent or confrontational methods.
    - Interposition: the action of interposing someone or something.
    - Nullification: to make legally null and void; invalidate.

    2. Definitions of three specific words:
    - Alliteration: the occurrence of the same letter or sound (not a vowel) at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
    - Allusion: an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.
    - Metaphor: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable. Eg, I had fallen though a trapdoor of depression, with no ladder to climb back up.
    - Simile: a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid. Eg, He was as quick as a fox. He was brave like a lion.

    3. “Five score years ago…”- Martin Luther King’s Opening Statement:
    “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.”
    This above opening statement to King’s speech is an allusion to 100 years ago when Abraham Lincoln signed the said Emancipation (Freedom) Proclamation. This allusion was an appropriate and strong opening to his speech, because Lincoln was known for his beliefs in freedom, and also because instantly everybody listening knew what the event is that he is talking about, when it was, and understand what it represents. As it is used in Luther’s speech, it was an allusion to use Lincoln’s quote of “all men are created equal”. It is related and significant.

    4. The Allusion to the Declaration of Independence and the Bible:

    5. Alliteration in the Speech:
    “Come to the Nation’s capital, come and cash a check.”

    6. A Metaphor:
    “… To take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism.”

    7. A Simile:
    “… Righteousness like a mighty stream.”

    8. Type of Language Technique:
    "The life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination” uses metaphorical techniques.

    9. Why would this (above) be an effective method of moving his audience?
    This quote is an effective method of moving his audiences because it inserts strong, powerful and visual thoughts and images into their minds.

    10. What inference was King making about the progress of African Americans to enter the mainstream of American life in the one hundred years which followed the end of slavery?
    The inference the he was talking about was that the social gap between the African and other Americans will be brought together- “brotherhood “ and peace will be in place.

    11. Powerful and Appealing Imagery:
    To me, the most powerful use of figures of speech that create ‘mental pictures’ was in his quote, "The life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.” For me, the images brought forward are strong due to his description and detail. He has mastered the use of ‘figures of speech’ and ‘imagery’.

    √√√

    Angus Trenerry
    May 23, 2009

    1. Gradualism – a policy of gradual reform rather than sudden change or revolution.
    Inextricably – impossible to disentangle or separate
    • Impossible to escape from: an inextricable situation
    Promissory – conveying or implying a promise: statements that are promissory in nature | promissory words.
    Curvaceous - (esp. of a woman or a woman's figure) having an attractively curved shape.
    Interposition - the action of interposing someone or something: the interposition of members between tiers of management.
    Nullification - make legally null and void; invalidate: judges were unwilling to nullify government decisions

    2. Allusion - an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference: an allusion to Shakespeare | a classical allusion.
    Alliteration - the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
    Simile - a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid
    Metaphor - a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable

    3. 5 Score years ago meant…………………………
    Score means 25 years, so 5 score is 125 years ago when Abraham Lincoln gave the Gettysburg address. To end the divided nation on the issue of black slavery. Lincoln did a lot in his lifetime to eradicate Negro Slavery in America.

    4. What Wilso said.

    5. Alliteration
    Come to our Nations Capital to Cash a Check.

    6. Metaphor
    – Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.
    - Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.

    7. Simile
    - and we will not be satisfied until "justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream."¹

    8. "The life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination." Is a Metaphor.

    9. Because a lot of the audience was Negro, and this motivates them. They feel as if the way they have been put into a corner, isolated, and discriminated against is living a life of slavery.

    10. He is saying that the change that has been made, and is to be made will make for a better America. An America where black men, white men, and people of all colours and races will be equal, and peaceful. However these changes might be hard, radical, and harsh.

    11. The imagery that captures me the most is the sentence; ‘We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.’ This is a very emotional passage when interpreted. It says that for years the white Americans and politicians have been saying that it can’t be done, the pain can’t be re-payed, and the apology cannot be uttered. That the American people have been lying, and that there is room for blacks and whites to live together, in a happy and un-racist America. There is always money, and always equality, and America can’t hide it.

    Callum Dillon
    May 28, 2009

    I Have Dream: Callum Dillon

    1. To Emancipate is to set free from social, political and legal restrictions.
    To Segregate is to set apart from others, to isolate or divide.
    To Languish is to lose life or vitality, to grow weak or feeble.
    Promissory, indicative of something to come, promising.
    Gradualism, a policy of gradual reform, rather than sudden change or revolution.
    Inextricably, being impossible to disentangle or sperate.
    Tribulation, a cause or state of great trouble or suffering.
    To Interpose is to insert between one thing and another, to intervene between parties.

    2. Alliteration: The occurrence of the same consonant letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.

    Similes: A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description of something more emphatic or vivid.

    Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not applicable literally.

    Allusion: An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.

    3. “Five score years ago,” is an allusion to the Gettysburg address given by Abraham Lincoln at a famous battlefield of the American Civil war. It was at this time that the Emancipation Proclamation, which Lincoln had signed 100 days earlier, was brought into ratification. This freed all Negro slaves in the south, the slavery that the confederates were fighting for during the civil war. The document would go on to be closely followed by the complete abolition of slavery in America.

    This was an appropriate way for King to start his speech as it creates the image of freedom in the audience, but stands in stark contrast to his next paragraph, in which King goes on to expose the hideous injustice that still plagues the Negro population, though they are ‘free’.

    4. The allusion to the Declaration of Independence can be found in paragraph 3, ““unalienable Rights” of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”” While these are direct quotations from the actual document, they allude to the chief principles its creators had in mind for the new nation they were founding.

    King also draws many more allusions, some of which are biblical, for example: “No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.” Is an allusion to Amos 5:24, “But let justice roll on like a river, righteousness like a never-failing stream!”.
    King’s closing remarks, “black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing…” are also very similar to Galatians 3:28, which reads “…Jew nor Greek, Slave nor Free, Male nor Female, for you are all one in Christ…”.

    On an unrelated note, King also draws an allusion to the opening lines of Shakespeare’s Richard III, in which he says “this sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn....”


    5. King uses alliteration a great deal throughout his speech, as can bee seen through the folowoing quotations: “…dark and desolate…” (P.5), “sweltering summer” (P.6) and “trials and tribulations” (P.10)

    6. King’s speech is riddled with metaphors, all of which strengthen the speech and what it delivers. For example: flames of withering injustice, dark and desolate valley of segregation, sunlit path of racial justice, manacles of segregation and chains of descrimination are all metaphors that King uses to full effectiveness in his speech.

    7. King’s allusion to Amos 5:24 is also a simile, “satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream”, note the use of weaker words such as ‘like’.

    8. King uses some emotive metaphors in this passage to have the audience engage with his speech, they are “manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.”

    9. I believe that, in creating images of slavery in the minds of the audience, King is trying to expose the harsh reality of their current situation. Though they are free, though slavery has been abolished, they are still looked down upon. They haven’t the right to vote in places, in others they can’t access basic services. King is showing that they are not free, that they are still society’s slaves, in doing so, he moves the audience.

    10. King infers that “But one hundred years later, the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.” He came to the conclusion that the Negro was still not free and that change had to be enacted now, there was no time for the “tranquillising drug of gradualism.”

    11. The image that most appealed to me was the “But one hundred years later, the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination”. I find that this is one of the strongest images in King’s speech as it stands in bitter irony to the Negroes being free. Chains and manacles are strong symbols of slavery, yet the Negroes were told they were free, this extended juxtaposition was the strongest rhetoric device that King used, in my opinion.

    Campbell Duff
    May 28, 2009

    1) Creed: a system of Christian or other religious belief
    Emancipation: means to be set free
    Negro: a member of a dark-skinned group of peoples originally native to Africa south of the Sahara.
    Tranquility: free from disturbance
    Brotherhood: the relationship between brothers.
    Gradualism: a policy of gradual reform rather than sudden change or revolution.

    2)
    Allusion: an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.
    Alliteration: the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
    Metaphor: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable
    Simile: a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (e.g., as brave as a lion, crazy like a fox).

    3) The form in which King opened his speech was very powerful to the rest of America. It was reference to the past president Lincoln with the Gettysburg Address. The Gettysburg address was for the freeing of slaves in the united states some years previous. The address was seen to be the foundation for the Black American movement. This was a key to getting the audience involved and let them pick up on the powerfulness of his speech.

    4) The allusion to the Declaration is “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness”. This phrase is one of the key concepts of the declaration and this is why it stands to be so powerful.
    The allusion to the bible was “no, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream”. This massage was taken from the New Testament of Amos 5:24.

    5) The example of alliteration that I found was “come to the nation’s capital to cash a check”. This is a powerful piece of King’s speech and techniques like this is why it was so strong.

    6) an example of a metaphor in King’s speech is “Battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality”. The use of this technique in the speech adds meaning and give lift to what is being saying.

    7) An example of a simile in king’s speech is “righteousness like a mighty stream”.

    8) In the second paragraph, King says that "the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination." This technique is a metaphor.

    9) The use of this phrase states that the although the negro’s are not slaves anymore, they are being classes as them. They are not as equal as the white people and this demonstrates to them that they are second class.

    10) When King stated this he was inferring that when Negros enter the community, it will demolish the social gap that’s stands and they will be able to live in peace with the rest of America.

    11) The use of imagery in this speech adds to it becoming one of the most powerful speeches of all time. The responder not only hear the speech they also can picture it from all the “mental picture” that are being painted. Just an example of the use of imagery in the speech is “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges”.

    sschmidt
    May 28, 2009

    1. Read Dr. King's speech. Find seven words about which you are unsure and look up their meanings. Write the definitions.

    - Emancipation – Set free from legal, social, and political restrictions
    - Redemptive – Acting to save someone from error or evil
    - Gaduation - A policy of gradual reform rather then sudden change or revolution
    -
    -
    -
    2. Find and write the definitions of each of the following: alliteration, allusion, metaphor, and simile.

    - The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words
    - An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly
    - A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable
    - A figure of speech involving the comparison of one with another thing of a different kind.

    3. "Five score years ago," the opening phrase of King's speech, is an allusion to what or whom? Why was this an appropriate and strong way for King to begin his speech?
    In this Martin Luther king relates to Abraham Lincoln. This was a good way to start his speech as it caught the crowd’s attention and really got them to focus on what he was going to say. It was an appropriate start to his speech as Abraham Lincoln was known in America for his beliefs in freedom and equity.

    4. King's speech contains other allusions in addition to the one with which he opens his speech. Find an allusion to the Declaration of Independence and the Bible.

    5. Find an example of alliteration in King's speech.
    ‘Tis of thee, sweet land of liberty’
    6. Find an example of a metaphor.
    ‘engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquillising drug of gradualism’.
    7. Find an example of a simile.
    “black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics,”
    8. In the second paragraph, King says that "the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination."
    What type of figure of speech is this?
    That type of speech is a metaphor.
    9. These words bring up strong images of slavery. Why would this be an effective method of moving his audience?
    The use of bringing up slavery in his speech would have been an effective way to move the audience. As it makes them feel once again all the hard times that they have been through.
    Though the king states that they are still like slaves as the Negro’s where second class citizens and there was n real equity in the society.
    10. What inference was King making about the progress of African Americans to enter the mainstream of American life in the one hundred years which followed the end of slavery?
    He in implying that when African Americans enter the mainstream America that people will live in peace together and that the move to the mainstream of America will be shock them. Though every one will live in peace and love.
    10. Nearly every line of King's speech is filled with powerful images, or "mental pictures," many created by using figures of speech. Images help audiences to feel what speakers/writers want them to feel, help them remember what they have read or heard, and help them understand difficult material. Write a well-developed paragraph telling which of King's images you find most powerful and appealing and explain why this image had meaning for you.
    ‘America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." This is moving as the American government have promised everyone equity and given everyone a ‘check’ while the Negro’s people of America there check has come back as ‘insufficient funds’ which indicates that the Black people of America have been put down in the society and it is not equal.

    Nigel Bell
    May 28, 2009

    1. Promissory: Conveying or implying promise
    Insofar: To the extent that
    Gradualism: A policy of gradual reform rather than sudden change or revolution
    Militancy: Combative and aggressive in political or social cause, and typically favourite extreme, violent, or confrontational methods
    Devotees: A person who is very interested in and enthusiastic about someone or someone

    2. Alliteration: The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words
    Allusion: An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly
    Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a word phrase is applied to an object or action to which is not literally applicable
    Simile: A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid.

    3. Literally, score means twenty so ‘Five score years ago’ means 100 years ago. 100 years before this speech was made would have 1863, which was the year, that Abraham Lincoln gave the ‘Gettysburg Address’ speech. One important thing that Abraham Lincoln did was to sign the emancipation proclamation. King starts his speech like this as a symbolic reference to Lincoln speech because he started his similarly.

    4. The allusion to the bible was “no, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream”. This massage was taken from the New Testament of Amos 5:24. This I only one of a few allusions made to the bible.
    “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness” is an allusion made to the declaration of independence. This phrase represents the values that the creators of it had in mind for the future of the country.

    5. “In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check.”

    6. “An invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.”

    7. “…dark and desolate valley of segregation”

    8. This is an example of a metaphor

    9. In order for the audience to understand the position King is coming from they need to understand the life and poor treatment of Negro’s. The strong words used symbolise slavery and the Europeans attitude towards the Negro’s. By using this type of speech King engages the audience and they feel that they now have a moral responsibility to the rest of the speech. This provides the audience with an emotional connection with the speech and it means that it is imprinted on their mind.

    10. King was inferring that the entry of African Americans would be difficult and slow but would be peaceful. In order for this to happen though there needed to be immediate action taken.

    11. “One day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.”
    I think that the innocence of children is used effectively. They are not yet old enough to understand why people judge each other on the colour of their skin. I find that this really emphasises the idea of racial equality. This gives the responder something to hope for and it makes them question their views towards people of a different race. This makes everyone feel that they have a moral responsibility to aid this cause.

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